Tikanga consists of various principles and values. There are two main principles Tika meaning right and Pono meaning true. Combined these principles illustrate that to consider a practice tikanga it needs to be true and done correctly. Incorrectly practicing a principle results in a breach of tikanga this is described as Take-utu-ea requiring a solution. There are various values of Tikanga maori to do with behaviour and the way one should act in certain situations. These values include manaakitanga, The value Whanaungatanga which focuses on family, relationships and whakapapa, manaakitanga the value of nurturing friendships and mana which williams describes as “ authority, control, influence,prestige, power, psychic force, effectual binding authoritative” (williams 1957:172 ). The value of Tapu is the form of respect given everywhere buildings, people, spaces etc. The value of Utu is linked to revenge and the most appropriate form of warfare whilst the value of Noa is the state in which balance has been resorted after war or other hardships. A key point Mead made was that there are varying ideas of these values and principles and how exactly they should be put in place. Mead writes about William’s (2000) argument based on the ideas of Durie (1994) expressing that because there are so many differing opinions on the values of tikanga, they could all therefore be considered unreal.
Mead, H “Tikanga Maori: Living by Maori Values. Nz: Huia” 2003 pp 25-33